(1) Save as otherwise expressly provided by the Central Government by notification, these rules shall apply to:
(a) all goods and services bought or sold over digital or electronic network including digital products;
(b) all models of e-commerce, including marketplace and inventory models of e-commerce;
(c) all e-commerce retail, including multi-channel single brand retailers and single brand retailers in single or multiple formats; and
(d) all forms of unfair trade practices across all models of e-commerce:
Provided that these rules shall not apply to any activity of a natural person carried out in a personal capacity not being part of any professional or commercial activity undertaken on a regular or systematic basis.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-rule (1), these rules shall apply to a e-commerce entity which is not established in India, but systematically offers goods or services to consumers in India.
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